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bakery industry , cost reduction strategies , manufacturing cost , procurement strategies
By: subodh kumar singh

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Bakery manufacturing processes

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This report consist of following automated manufacturing process for mass production which includes .

• Biscuit Manufacturing

• Bread Manufacturing

• Cake Manufacturing

• Wafer Biscuit Manufacturing


Product Range

Bakery products contain high nutritive value and are manufactured from wheat-flour, sugar, baking powder, condensed milk, fat, salt, jelly, dry fruits, various essences and flavouring etc. Different type of bakery products can be classified as:

Dry Bakery Products

• Biscuits: Soft biscuits, hard biscuits, cookies, crackers, fancy biscuits, cream wafer

Moist Bakery Products

• Bread: Sweet bread, Milk bread, Masala bread, Garlic bread, Fruit bread etc.
• Buns: Fruit buns, hamburger buns, dinner rolls, crisp bread, pizza.
• Others: Cakes, pastries, doughnuts, muffins etc.

Other popular bakery products are Bagels , Waffles , Tortillas , Pretzels , Pies , Cup Cakes , Swiss Rolls , Puffs , Rusk

Popular among these and which are now highly automated for mass production is biscuits, cookies, bread, cakes and wafer biscuit. We can find these bakery products all across globe with variants as per local taste.

Growing popularity of these products had made investor, entrepreneurs and business owners putting huge investments in bakery plants . This report would help people interested in bakery business to under stand the basic manufacturing principle of bakery products .

Biscuit Manufacturing

Biscuit making process

MIXING: This is a process where all ingredients are put together in right proportion for dough formation. These ingredients are then fed into Mixers where mixing is done and dough is prepared for moulding/cutting .Major ingredients are flour, fat, sugar and others as per the product one would like to have.

MOULDING: In this section we laminate the dough into sheet, which then passes down to gauge rollers, and sheet thickness is achieved for moulder/cutter. Here we have a cutter or moulder as per the variety where one gets the shape and sizes of biscuits.

BAKING: This is the area where we pass these moulded wet biscuit into baking oven .The biscuits are baked on desired temperature s. various type of heating are available now days as per the convenience and cost. Different type ovens are available

COOLING: These baked biscuits are then passed on to cooling conveyors for natural cooling prior too packing .The temperatures are brought down to room temperatures

PACKING: These biscuit are then stacked and fed into packing machine for packing Different packing material are available for packing of these biscuit in different packs slug packs , pouch pack or family packs etc.These packs are then put into secondary packaging like cartons to be transported to retailers.

Bread Manufacturing

Stages in Bread Manufacturing

• Preparation of ingredients

• Dough mixing

• Bulk fermentation, sponge or floor time

• Dividing (scaling)

• Rounding

• Moulding

• Panning

• Baking

• Cooling

• Slicing and packaging

Bread manufacturing process
Preparation of Ingredients:

• Check and obtain ingredient
• Sieve and weigh flour
• Sieve and weigh dry ingredients
• Check temperature
• Prepare water

Dough Mixing and Development:


This refers to the force applied mechanically or manually on flour, water and all other ingredients, allowing insoluble components of flour to hydrate, forming the structure of the dough and proper hydration of the starch, resulting a homogeneous mass.


This usually refers to the phase after the dough is formed allowing protein structure to be stretched and further hydrate to develop into gluten by means of mechanical force or chemical agents or extended fermentation. The dough is developed to the optimum level
Sufficient for good gas retention.

Dough Mixing & Dough Development- Objective

• Distribute all ingredients evenly
• Hydrate the ingredients
• Form and develop protein (gluten)
• Incorporate air into the dough
• Forms homogeneous dough of correct consistency

Dough Mixing Methods


Single and double arm mixers are most common examples. By gentle kneading, stretching & folding the dough develops. Dough produced by such mixers requires some bulk fermentation or floor-time to mature the dough.


Dough is developed by mechanical force and generates more friction resulting high dough temperature. Common examples of such mixers are Spiral Mixers, Planetary Mixers and Horizontal Mixers.


Dough development is achieved in a very short time and chemical agents are used for the purpose. Mixing time is normally 2-3 minutes. Tweedy Mixers and Indian High-Speed mixers are typical examples.


Straight Dough and Sponge Dough

• Biological changes in dough mass and action of fermentation over extended period.
• Form and develop protein (gluten)
• Improves dough stability
• Enhance natural flavor/aroma

Dividing, Rounding and Intermediate Proofing:


Dividing the dough into desired weights or as per government regulation. Excess gas formed is expelled.


Seals the dough pieces to a smooth and overall volume and also ensures consistent shape for moulding.


Allows the dough piece to relax after dividing and rounding. Stimulates yeast activity to enhance conditioning of dough piece. Conditions the dough surface allowing good moulding and preventing wear and tear of the surface.

MOULDING – Objectives

• Sheet the dough piece flat
• Curl the flattened dough piece
• Seal curled dough piece
• Straight, Twisted, 4 – Piece or W- Formation shape for dough panning

PANNING – Objectives

• Desired, Convenient and consistent shape
• Means for surface during final proofing and baking
• Means for movement
• Prevents damage
• Enhance oven performance and heat transfer

FINAL PROOFING- – Objectives

• Allow dough piece to relax after moulding
• Stimulate yeast activity
• Ensures the dough piece surface to be conditioned and moist to aid oven spring
• Raise temperature of the dough piece to enhance oven performance

BAKING – Objectives

• Formation and expansion of gas
• Trapping of gas in the gluten network
• Change the properties of starch
• Change the properties of protein
• Formation of crust and browning (caramelisation)
• Achieve and set desired volume
• Develop flavor and crust characters
• Gelatinise starch and set crumb structure
• Alter properties of protein
• Stops action of yeast and enzymes
• Controls moisture content of crust and crumb
• Makes the food microbiologically stable food


• Remove baked products from oven and pan
• Cool baked products sufficiently to enable slicing and or wrapping or packaging without damaging the product
• Reduce contamination or possible microbiological spoilage

Packaging - Objectives

• Protect baked product from external contamination and damage
• Provide suitable medium containing, handling, transport
And use of product
• Retains moisture and aroma
• Provide suitable method for labeling, identification, promotion and information

Cake Manufacturing

The process described here is for bar cakes which are sold in either as bar cakes or slice cakes

MIXING: This is a process where all ingredients are put together in right proportion for batter formation. Its like viscous paste Ingredient are then fed into Planetary Mixers where mixing is done and batter is prepared for panning .Major ingredients are flour , fat ,sugar , eggs , emulsifiers , leavening agents and others additives as per the product one would like to have.

PANNING : In this section we the batter into baking pans/ moulds with different sizes as per product requirement baking papers are used on pan to prevent product to stick to the surface of the pans , which then passes down to oven .

BAKING: This is the area where we pass these moulds into baking oven .The biscuits are baked on desired temperature s. various type of heating are available now days as per the convenience and cost. Different type ovens are available. Most popular ovens now days are rotary ovens and contray ovens

COOLING: These baked biscuits are then passed on to cooling chambers for cooling prior to packing .The temperatures are brought down to room temperatures

DEPANNING : After baking the moulds are taken out from oven and cake slabs are extracted from moulds either manually or through depanner s.

PACKING: Baked cake slab is then taken out of and then passed to slicer. These bars are again passed on to cake slicer for packing. These slices are then packed in horizontal flow wrap machine .Various packing materials are used for packaging .Different packing are available .single slice pack double slice pack sliced bar cake bar .Varieties available are fruit cut, cake milk , cake orange cake chocolate ,plum cakes etc.

Wafer Biscuit Manufacturing

MIXING : Batter preparation First step in wafer mixing is to prepare batter ;wheat/ flour( low gluten type )is mixed with water and other ingredient sin batter mixer to get thin batter of suitable consistency .Mixing time could be 2- 5 Minute batter is then transferred to batter storage tank from where it can be transferred to baking plate.

Cream Preparation: Creams are prepared in mixers where ingredients like flavors, colors, and whey powder and soya lecithin are added. Cream of suitable consistency is prepared. Various types creams are popular in wafer biscuit are chocolate s , milk , caramel orange , banana , strawberry , hazelnut and others .Cream preparation could take place between 10- 12 mins. Cream then can be transferred to reservoir.

BAKING: Batter is then pumped and spread on to baking plate by help spreading nozzles. These plates then moves into baking zone of the oven. Temperature maintained for baking these wafer baking plates is between 175 - 200 deg c. The baking time kept is 1.75 - 2.0 min. Capacity of oven can be from 50 - 100 plates. Size of plate can also vary from 400 x300 to 300 x 200 mm and thickness is maintained between 2.5 - 3mm. Most of these wafer ovens are electrical oven s. These plates travel upon guide rail and electrical power is supplied through bus bars inside the oven .Baking plates are in contact with bus bar through carbon brushes.

CREAMING: These wafer sheets are the allowed to cool down by moving through one or two arch's .Cooled wafer sheets are then taken to spreading machine. Cream is then spread over wafer sheets at creaming machines Once the block of 2/3/4/5 layers of creamed wafer is made , the block is then moved to cooling block

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COOLING TOWER: Wafer sandwich blocks are then cooled to harden and creams get set on wafer block. The cooling block is dehumidified to reduce the moisture absorption by wafers during cooling. Temperature maintained in cooling block is between 10- 15 deg c.

CUTTING AND FEEDING: Fully automated cutting is done at cutting machines .Here we can cut wafer blocks in different sizes. These fingers are then passed on to feed conveyor for packing

PACKING : Horizontal flow are used to pack these fingers .These fingers are packed in heat sealable moisture proof films for good shelf life . These packets are then packed into cbbs and sent for dispatch.


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